We did another DNA test on Clif Hullinger. His MtDNA is the same as his mother Pearl Harlan Hullinger and all of her female descendants and ancestors. And his "Y" DNA which is passed from father to son will be the same for all male descendants and ancestors of John F Hullinger. Info below:
Your Ancestral Journey
The origin of our species lies in Africa: It's where we first evolved and where we've spent the majority of our time on Earth. We have since migrated to every corner of the globe, a journey that is written in our DNA.
With the DNA sample you sent us, we ran a comprehensive analysis to identify thousands of genetic markers—breadcrumbs—in your DNA, which are passed down from generation to generation. By looking at the order in which these markers occurred over time, we can trace the journey of your ancestors out of Africa. Furthermore, with these markers we have created a human family tree. Everyone alive today falls on a particular branch of this family tree. We have examined your markers to determine which branch you belong to. The results of our analysis—your personal journey—are outlined below.
As our modern human ancestors migrated through Eurasia, they met other hominin species and interbred. These "cousin" species, Neanderthal and Denisovan, are now extinct, but the genetic makeup of nearly everyone born outside of Africa today includes 1 to 4 percent DNA from these other hominins, living relics of ancient encounters.
Your maternal haplogroup is shared by 0.4% of all participants in the project
Your paternal haplogroup is shared by 0.1% of all participants in the project
Modern humans started to leave Africa between 60,000 and 70,000 years ago. They traveled in groups, taking different paths and arriving at different destinations. These journeys can be traced through DNA “markers” that form the human genetic tree. Based on these personal markers, each person alive today can be assigned to a specific haplogroup, which identifies their branch on the tree.
Based on their different destinations, humans migrating out of Africa developed regional affiliations over time. These affiliations are present as patterns of DNA and are visible in the variety of physical traits humans possess. Scientists have identified typical individuals, genetically speaking, from different parts of the globe and defined them as “reference populations.” Genographic participants are assigned to the reference population they most resemble genetically. The significant mixing of peoples over time, however, means that a reference population may only provide a rough estimate of an individual’s ancestral diversity.
Your Regional Ancestry
(5,000 Years - 10,000 Years Ago)
We are all more than the sum of our parts, but the results below offer some of the most dramatic and fascinating information in your Geno 2.0 test. In this section, we display your affiliations with a set of nine world regions. This information is determined from your entire genome so we’re able to see both parents’ information, going back six generations. Your percentages reflect both recent influences and ancient genetic patterns in your DNA due to migrations as groups from different regions mixed over thousands of years. Your ancestors also mixed with ancient, now extinct hominid cousins like Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East or the Denisovans in Asia. If you have a very mixed background, the pattern can get complicated quickly! Use the reference population matches below to help understand your particular result.
This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequency in northern European populations—people from the UK, Denmark, Finland, Russia and Germany in our reference populations. While not limited to these groups, it is found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe. This component is likely the signal of the earliest hunter-gatherer inhabitants of Europe, who were the last to make the transition to agriculture as it moved in from the Middle East during the Neolithic period around 8,000 years ago.
Note: In some cases regional percentages may not total 100%.
What Your Results Mean
Modern day indigenous populations around the world carry particular blends of these regions. We compared your DNA results to the reference populations we currently have in our database and estimated which of these were most similar to you in terms of the genetic markers you carry. This doesn’t necessarily mean that you belong to these groups or are directly from these regions, but that these groups were a similar genetic match and can be used as a guide to help determine why you have a certain result. Remember, this is a mixture of both recent (past six generations) and ancient patterns established over thousands of years, so you may see surprising regional percentages. Read each of the population descriptions below to better interpret your particular result.
Your First Reference Population: British (United Kingdom)
This reference population is based on samples collected from populations in the United Kingdom. The dominant 49% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 33% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years. As these early farmers moved into Europe, they spread their genetic patterns as well. Today, northern European populations retain their links to both the earliest Europeans and these later migrants from the Middle East.
British (United Kingdom)
Your Second Reference Population: Romanian
This reference population is based on samples collected from people native to Romania. The 43% Mediterranean and 19% Southwest Asian percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived here more than 7,000 years ago. The 36% Northern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived more than 35,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. The 2% Northeast Asian component shows that there has been some mixing with groups to the east, and is typical of Eastern European populations such as Romanians, Russians and North Caucasians.