Pearl Harlan Maternal DNA

In 2010 we conducted genetic testing to determine the maternal mtDNA lineage of Pearl Harlan Hullinger. Pearl's son Clifford Harlan Hullinger took a swab of the inside of his mouth and sent it for testing.

His mtDNA inherited from Pearl is the same for all of Pearl's children and all of the children of her female descendants. It is also the same or very similar as the mtDNA of her mother and grandmother and great grandmother, and of their female ancestors and descendants in the female line.

Pearl's known maternal lineage is as follows:

Hannah (Ianhanna) Poe 1780-1871

Rebecca Morgan Hart 1816-1891

Missouri America Hart 1841-1925

Minnie Jane Lockridge 1869-1968

Pearl Harlan Hullinger 1895-1993

Several geneaological references have indicated that Hannah (Ianhanna) Poe was part Native American

"Her mother, Iahannah Poe, may have been of American Indian descent."

"William Morgan and Rebecca Hart's first child, James
Elliiott Hart, was born in January 1840, in the northern part
of old Livingston County, in an area known as the Goshen
Prairie. We have been told that he was the first "white
child" born in that sparsely settled area, close to the Iowa
State line. Others have told us that he was not actually
awarded that "distinction" locally, as his grandmother,
Hannah Poe Hart, was full or part Cherokee Indian, making him
part Indian and, thus, not considered to be wholly "white"."

"This is not a story we have verified, but do find
interesting. Perhaps local historians in Mercer County could
furnish more information on what child is "officially"
considered to be the first white child born in that county."

"William Morgan's daughter Hannah Jane, born in 1834, relates
in "Roger's History of Mercer County", published in 1911,
that her husband's uncle, Johnny Reeves, and her father were
the first settlers of what was referred to as the Goshen
Prairie. She states that there were Indians living in that
area at the time her family settled there, and Hannah recalls
them visiting her stepmother, Rebecca Hart. They were fed and
at times would stop for the night at the Hart home, where
they slept, wrapped in blankets, before the fireplace."


(Rebecca was the granddaugher of Hanna (Iahannah) Poe 

"Rebecca lived near Cainsville, MO at some point in her life.
Her son, Jesse Fox, was "raised" by his grandparents."

"As with some other Hart's, Rebecca is said to have applied
for land in Oklahoma as a result of Indian heritage, but was
turned down because she didn't "have enough Indian blood."
According to a great-great-granddaughter (from the Fox line),
Rebecca lived in Wyandotte County, KS at the end of her life.
She was cared for by her daughter, Letha Dean Powers, since
Rebecca was dying of skin cancer on her face. She probably
died between 1920 and 1930. She is probably buried in the
Kansas City, MO area.

We reasoned that if this was our GGGGGrandmother Iahannah Poe was full or part Native American that her mtDNA ancestry would would be Native American. But her mtDNA is not Native American. This does not prove or disprove possible Native American ancestry of Pearl's (and our) ancestry but it does prove that our original maternal ancestor who came to North America was not Native American but came more recently from Europe.

Pearl Harlan's mtDNA type is T.  All of Pearl's relatives in the female line will have an identical or very similar T Haplogroup, which is from Europe. Native American mtDNA Haplogroups are A, B, C, D, and X.

* This company has found a number of other lineages, including T, that they believe were in the Cherokee before modern European immigration.

DNA theory posits that all people are descended from one woman.  This woman lived in Africa.  Each woman passes on her mtDNA to her children.  Each one of her daughters pass on this mtDNA to her children.

Over time there are small changes to the mtDNA. These divisions enable us to follow the migrations of different groups of individuals by their mtDNA.

There are seven founding female mtDNA lineages in Europe. T is one of those founding lineages. Brian Sykes is a genetist and author who dramatizes the journey by giving the haplogroup a name - in our case T = Tara. A summary of his writing is included below:


Tara’s clan was launched about 17,000 years ago. Her clan lived in Italy in the depths of the Ice Age. They were less prosperous, but perhaps developed musical instruments and boats. The maritime lifestyle provided the clan with mussels and seals to eat. About 9 percent of Europeans are members of the clan of Tara. They live around the Mediterranean and are numerous in Britain and Ireland."

Geneticist Brian Sykes in "The Seven Daughters of Eve" dramatizes and discusses the founding genetic lineages of Europe.

The information below is provided the review below written on Oct 21, 2008 by Sara E. Lewis.

Sykes says his book is about "the history of the world as revealed by genetics." He names the genetic clan groups and describes their world.

The Seven Daughters of Eve is a must read for anyone considering a DNA analysis to supplement genealogical work. Author Bryan Sykes' conversational and breezy writing style demystifies the science. Although most of the book describes his research path (see Understanding Genetic Genealogy), he lapses into the romantic visions of the daughters or clan mothers toward the end.

Differences in mtDNA Noted in 1987

A 1987 paper described how mitochondrial DNA shows human population evolution. If two people have a very similar mitochondrial DNA, then they are more closely related. They have a common ancestor who lived more recently in the past. People with very different mitochondrial DNA share a more remote common ancestor. Both males and females have mitochondria in all cells, but only women pass theirs on to offspring because only women produce eggs. Fathers pass on nuclear DNA (Y-DNA).

Out of Africa

Sykes applied the mitochondrial DNA knowledge to determine the progress of Homo sapiens out of Africa, the only place where there are fossils covering the last three million years from Homo erectus, to Homo neanderthalensis, to Homo sapiens. In 1997, DNA was sequenced from a Neaderthal and it had 26 differences from the average modern European, which indicates that they last shared a common ancestor about 250,000 years ago.

After collecting thousands of DNA samples from across Europe, Sykes fit the sequences into a scheme to show their evolutionary relationship to one another. He found seven clusters (haplogroups or clades) that frame the population of Europe. Six of the seven were older than ten thousand years. Historians had previously believed that agriculturalists overwhelmed the last of the hunter-gatherers on the European landscape after the last Ice Age. But the mitochondrial DNA showed otherwise. It provided evidence that most of Europe is populated by people whose ancestors endured the last Ice Age.

Sykes' Seven Daughters scenarios also draw on archaeology and climate records, including styles of tools, pollen in ice cores, animal and fish bones. “Theses are real people, genetically almost identical to us, their descendants, but living in very different circumstances,” he explained.


Ursula is the oldest clan mother and she lived 45,000 years ago. Her clan faced the Neanderthals and moved further into cold Europe than any of there kind had before. They edged the Neanderthals into extinction and currently make up about 11 percent of the modern European population.


Xenia and her clan came into being about 20,000 years ago at a time when earlier species of the genus Homo had become extinct and modern humans had Europe to themselves. Although the continent was cold and inhospitable, the tundra was teeming with bison and reindeer. Three branches of Xenia’s clan fanned out across Europe and 6 percent of today’s Europeans trace their mitochondrial DNA back through her clan.


Helena, or haplogroup H, was formed by genetic mutations beginning 20,000 years ago. The Glacial Maximum pushed these new Europeans south and up against the Alps and Pyrenees. Her clan may have known the cave paintings at Dordogne in France. This was the most successful clan and 47 percent of modern Europeans are descended from them. Louise Liffengren Hullinger is H.


A copy error in DNA marks the genesis of Velda’s clan about 17,000 years ago. The clan lived in southern France, Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula. They maintained a permanent base camp and produced symbolic and naturalistic art. About 5 percent of Europeans were members of this clan.


Tara’s clan was launched about 17,000 years ago. Her clan lived in Italy in the depths of the Ice Age. They were less prosperous, but perhaps developed musical instruments and boats. The maritime lifestyle provided the clan with mussels and seals to eat. About 9 percent of Europeans are members of the clan of Tara. They live around the Mediterranean and are numerous in Britain and Ireland.


Younger still, Katrine’s clan was differentiated about 15,000 years ago. People still lived in small bands at that time, but the world was warming and would soon make this hunting lifestyle less necessary. Katrine’s clan domesticated animals to live in herds and provide food and companionship. Six percent of native Europeans are from the clan of Katrine.


When Jasmine’s clan formed, the Last Ice Age was at an end. Jasmine’s clan lived in permanent quarters and began to plant seeds, raise crops, and herd animals. Today, 17 percent of Europeans are in the clan of Jasmine. One group followed the Mediterranean coast and found its way to the west of Britain, and is common in Cornwall, Wales, and the west of Scotland. The other is common in the central portion of northern Europe. (My wife Beth Ruyle Hullinger is J).

DNA Connections Through Time and Around the World Build Community Feeling

There are 26 other clans of equivalent status in the rest of the world. Interestingly, Africa has only 13 percent of the world’s population yet 40 percent of the maternal clans originated there.

Said Sykes “Until I started this work I always thought of my ancestors, if I thought of them at all, as some sort of vague and amorphous collection of dead people with no solid connection to me or the modern world, and certainly no real relevance to either

… But once I had realized, through the genetics, that one of my ancestors was actually there, taking part, it was no longer merely interesting – it is overwhelming. DNA is the messenger which illuminates that connections, handed down from generation to generation, carried, literally, in the bodies of my ancestors. Each message traces a journey through time and space … When two people find out that they are in the same clan they often experience this feeling of connection. Very few can put it into words, but it is most definitely there.”

Many DNA communities have been established to explore these connections.

Read more at Suite101: The Seven Daughters of Eve: Bryan Sykes Personalizes the mtDNA Clans that Populated Europe

Migration Map

mtDNA Results

Your haplogroup and differences relative to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) are shown below. A result of “CRS” indicates that your sequence matches the CRS for the entire region.
As you view your mtDNA results, we strongly encourage you to reference the mtDNA Results Tutorial to answer your questions about your results.

Haplogroup - T

  • HVR1 differences from CRS
    • 16126C
    • 16294T
    • 16296T
    • 16519C
  • HVR2 differences from CRS
    • 73G
    • 263G
    • 309.1C
    • 315.1C
You may copy and paste your results into Excel or Word. You may need to adjust column widths in Excel after the paste operation.

 (PDF, Requires Acrobat Reader)


Specific mitochondrial haplogroups are typically found in different regions of the world, and this is due to unique population histories. In the process of spreading around the world, many populations—with their special mitochondrial haplogroups—became isolated, and specific haplogroups concentrated in geographic regions. Today, we have identified certain haplogroups that originated in Africa, Europe, Asia, the islands of the Pacific, the Americas, and even particular ethnic groups. Of course, haplogroups that are specific to one region are sometimes found in another, but this is due to recent migration.

The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Today, we find haplogroup T*—the root haplogroup for haplogroup T—widely distributed in Europe.
Copyright 2009 Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd.
USAGE POLICY: Use of the above Haplogroup description requires written permission from Genealogy by Genetics.
Cambridge Reference Sequence
Below we list your differences from the CRS and the value the CRS has at those positions. You may click the link “Show all results” to expand the charts to your entire sequence compared with the CRS. If you have tested the full sequence, please note that the expanded coding region (CR) chart will take several seconds to load due to the length of the sequence.
Mutations in red are positions where your sequence has a different letter of the DNA sequence compared to the same position in the CRS. Mutations in green are positions where your sequence has extra letters which the CRS does not have, called insertions. Mutations represented as a dash, -, are positions where the CRS has a letter, but yours does not. These mutations are called deletions.

Show All Positions

Show All Positions

Certificate - Ancestral Country Matches

mtDNA Recent Ancestral Origins

Welcome to the mtDNA ANCESTRAL ORIGINS database! This section displays the countries of origin reported by the people whom you match from both our research and customer databases. Your list of matches represents the range of places in which relatives of your ancestors may have lived. Current scientific research considers differences in positions 309 and 315 in the HVR2 region to be genealogically insignificant, so they are ignored in High Resolution and Full Sequence match comparisons.
For information purposes, the Recent Ancestral Origins search also displays results that are matches from both the research database and Family Tree DNA customers. Entries from the research database typically include only base pairs 16001 to 16400, while our tests include the full spectrum of HVR-1 which is 16001 to 16569, so both near and exact matches are listed below.
The chart displays:
  • Each country from which you have matches
  • The number of people you match for each country and comment combination
  • Any additional information your matches provided about their origins
  • The total number of people you match from that country
  • The total number of people who have reported this as their country of origin
  • The percent of the people we have tested from this country who match you

How to read this chart:

The following is an example of how to correctly interpret your matches below:
You match 1 person out of 559 people from Austria, this is 0.2% of the population tested from Austria.
CountryYour MatchesCommentMatch TotalCountry TotalPercentage
Bosnia and Herzegovina1-140N/A
Czech Republic3-35940.5%
1Lower Saxony
Northern Ireland1-11320.8%
Russian Federation5-61,4530.4%
United Kingdom21-285,3870.5%
3British Isles
4Great Britain
CountryYour MatchesCommentMatch TotalCountry TotalPercentage
Czech Republic2-22430.8%
1Lower Saxony
Russian Federation1-14960.2%
United Kingdom9-101,8030.6%
1Great Britain